Glossary


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Saffron


The flower rises directly from the ground, having no true stem.  It has 6 lavender, white, or reddish purple flowers up to 2 inches long, with linear grass-like leaves that can be up to one and a half feet long.  It does not produce fruit and flowers in September. Height: up to 18 inches.

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Sage


Hardy perennial subshrub with square, woody, wiry stems.  Flowers can be pink, purple, blue, or white and grow in whorls of four to eight axils.  Leaves look pebbly and wrinkled, are grayish-green, long-stalked and hairy to velvety.  Height: 12-30 inches.

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Sarsaparilla


Perennial climber with erect, semi-woody stems and sharp thorns.  The leaves are large, prominently veined, and alternately stalked.  Small, greenish flowers are followed by black berries.

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Sassafras


Small deciduous trees with aromatic, mitten-shaped leaves and rough gray, deeply-channeled bark. Flowers are pale yellow-green in 2-inch racemes. Most leaves are 3-lobed, though some are ovate.  Produces a blue ovoid fruit with one seed.  Height: 30-50 feet.  Blooms: Spring, before leaves appear.

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Saw Palmetto


Member of the fan palms.  Small, stout evergreen shrub supported by a large underground trunk.  The edge of the leaves has the appearance of a saw.

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Scullcap


Perennial growing up to 1 foot tall with thin, sharply pointed, oval leaves.  Small, blue flowers appear in clusters on the upper-stems.  Blooms: June-September

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Shepherd's Purse


Annual or biennial whose rough, green leaves form a rosette from the erect stem rises.  The stem ends in tiny, white flowers and has small, flat, heart-shaped seed pods all the way up to the flowers. 

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Shiitake


Gilled mushrooms ranging in color from light amber to dark brown.  Native to Asia, they are most often found growing on fallen trees.

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Siberian Ginseng


Thorny shrub that reaches heights of up to 8 feet.  The root is woody and much larger than true ginseng root.  It has several erect spiny stems with light great or brownish bark.  The leaves are palm shaped and it produces a black berry. 

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Slippery Elm


Deciduous tree growing up to 132 feet, flowers appear from February-May, before the leaves appear. 

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Spearmint


Hardy, branched perennial shrub, spearmint has bright green leaves and pink to lilac flowers in slender cylindrical spikes.  Height: 2.5 feet.  Blooms: August-September

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Spikenard


An oversized herb, with stems coming from one main stalk.  It has a height of up to 6 feet and a width of 3 feet.  The berries are almost round, hard, red-brown turning to dark purple.  The root is thick with heavy bark, and has a pungent smell and taste.

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Squaw Vine


Creeping herb with pale pink flowers shaped as elongated tubes and small, oval, dark green shiny leaves.  Evergreen. Fruit is a double red or white berry.  Height: 4 inches.  Blooms: June and July

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St. John's Wort


Erect, round stems with two raised, longitudinal ridges on each.  Bright yellow flowers in terminal, flat, leafy panicles on branches, they are marked by black dots and lines. Produces many small black seeds in three-celled capsules.  Height: up to 2 feet. Blooms: July and August.

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Stone Root


Tall bush with straight, rigid stems and oval, coarsely toothed leaves.  The root is brown-gray and stone hard.  Height: 1-4 feet.  Lemon-scented flowers bloom July to September.

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Strawberry


Deciduous, herbaceous perennial, spreading by runners or stolons.  Single white flowers on stems are followed by red or white berries with numerous yellow seeds on the outside. Blooms: April to July

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